Rough Stages of Hair Growth

Winter is coming and, during the colder months, I prefer the hair on my head and face be long. The problem with that is the time it takes for it to successfully get there. Last week, I decided to just deal with it. Let it be. The beards that so many love don’t come over night for many of us. For a guy like me, a beard could take weeks or months of unruly growth to reach its full potential.

So, now is the time gents. October and November are the months to let it start growing. Get those rough stages over with, both on your hair and face, and give those patchy spots time to fill in in as No Shave November approaches and, subsequently, shows itself.

Oh, and I don’t recommend the completely unruly look if you’re A) in need of a new job or B) are happily employed by an organization that frowns upon long hair.

Click here for a GQ article on how to grow a thicker beard for the months to come.




Make growing healthy hair a priority.


Breaking Monotony

Everyone has a style. I encourage and respect that (even if I don’t always like certain people’s). Do what works for you.

But, sometimes, you have to try something new. We’re not Amish (unless you are, in which case I’m assuming someone printed this post for you). Therefore, you have wardrobe options. If you’re always bright and colorful, try some earthy fall colors in the coming months. If you’re constantly wearing black, go buy a crimson tie or canary skirt to add a bit of flare to your wardrobe. You never know how a different look will make you feel until you try it.

And that doesn’t just go for color schemes but grooming as well. For months at a time, I’ll let my hair and beard grow. Then one day I’ll get bored, cut both off, and start fresh. The beautiful thing (right now) is that it’ll all grow back. Or, ladies, if you’re thinking about trying a different hairdo, look at some folks who have a similar head shape, bone structure, and complexion and, if you like the way they wear their hair, go for it. The worst that can happen is you hate it and, in 3 months, you’ll be able to move back toward what you had before.

While we’re talking about switching up styles, know that different outfits serve different purposes. It is a must that I tailor some of my clothes because of the caliber of event they’re regularly worn to. Others can be worn right off the rack. And the accessories change with events too. If I’m shooting for a night on the town, I may don a suit and v-neck with loafers and earrings if I want to sauce it up. But, when I feel like looking smart but stylish for a meeting with a client, I’m throwing on cosmetic frames with a suit and well-polished hard bottoms (Note to myself and you: Polish shoes tonight). Either way, it’s about looking confident and comfortable in whatever you wear. And you don’t have to step out of your comfort zone daily but you should do it frequently enough to shake things up.

You never know what you’ll need to look like in your next work environment, so developing versatility and comfort now should be the game plan. Whether your employer, your significant other, or that barista at Starbucks that has been giving you the eye for the past few months, it’s nice to see that you can try something new and still look (and perform) like a winner.

All in all, no matter how old you are, you’re too young not to have fun and enjoy life.

Make being well-dressed and well-groomed priorities.

Oh, by the way, I’ve got a crazy post coming for next week’s fashion post. Make sure you’re subscribed to the blog so you don’t miss out on #TailoredAndTaperedTuesdays.

The Haircut

Last week, I was looking over my finances. About 25% of the money I budget monthly goes to haircuts. I spend $16 on a cut, tip Jennifer about $4, get two cuts a month, and grab a complimentary shape up in between, for which I tip another $4 or $5.

I’m dropping $50 per month on haircuts (double that number on months I go to New York) and I shouldn’t be. So, in September, I’m investing in a set of basic clippers. $20 right now will save me at least $200 every year from now on. I can do a haircut and a shape up each month at the barbershop, and clean myself up in between.

Looking good is important to me. Saving money is important to me. In order to make money, I have to look good, but in order to look good, I have to save money. Lines must be drawn and compromises must be made.


Make looking your best a priority (but do so responsibly).

Pushing the Envelope

I am often very conservative when it comes to my appearance in a business setting.  And, because I cannot take a haircut off like I can a Rolling Stones tee shirt, I have chosen not to go with haircuts that I thought to be stylish and fitting.

But, now, I am in a position in my life when I can try a more liberal look.  So I am.  No more dark Caesars for now.  Instead it’s fades.  Sometimes with a part.  Know why?  Because I may not have this hair of head for my whole life.  And I can perform my job just as well with a fade as I can with an even cut all around.

Be professional. But be a young professional.  Make calculated decisions.  If you know your industry won’t allow you to have a mohawk and be successful, I’m not saying don’t do it.  I’m just saying don’t be surprised when your boss places you on desk duty until your hair grows back.  Know where you work.  Do what you want with your hair (or other aspects of your appearance).  But know that there could be consequences.


Make professional development a priority.

Haircut: Professional or Personality?

Gentlemen, the hairstyle you choose is key to your success as a young professional so I had to include it in the “Controlled Externalities” series. Though the business world is becoming more and more progressive, there are still glass ceilings that can be placed above those of us who opt out the traditional hairstyles.  It might not be fair but it is reality.

This week I took the time to catch up with one of my two my personal barbers, Vince Jamael, and pick his brain on making sure that your hair looks the very best that it can.

While in college, I got a haircut at least once a week and a trim on the night that I went out for social gatherings.  That was right when Vince Jamael was getting comfortable with his clippers and sheers and his prices were right in line with my undergraduate student budget.  But, as I aged and relocated, I found that my haircuts were becoming more and more expensive.  Whereas I was paying between $30 and $60 per month in Greensboro, where I attended college, Charlotte haircuts were costing me $80 before I even pulled out a tip.  But I am a firm believer that your appearance is something you invest in and, if you want quality, you have to pay for it.  I asked Vince Jamael how often he believes an image conscious young professional should get his hair cut and he recommends “an actual haircut every other week and a trim or shape up in between.”

But, if you’re anything like me, you travel a couple times a month and may be away from your barber for a week or longer.  At that point what do you do?  I know that I won’t go to just any barber but I do know how to follow a line so I asked Vince what product he suggests to keep that hairline looking as clean as possible.  “The Andis T-Outliner is what I would recommend.  It is barber-quality but easy to work with and not very expensive.”  I looked it up online and the outliners are about $50 but that’s 3-5 trims at a regular barbershop so definitely not a bad investment in my eyes.


Now for the hardest question:  What do you do in the age of the beard?  Men both in and out of the office are sporting them now.  But, more often than not, the president of the United States sets the for what is professionally acceptable in America and what is not.  The last president to be elected with any facial hair was William Taft in 1913.  When I asked Vince Jamael his opinion on professional facial hair stylings, he said “It’s always safe to go all the way close shaven but if you want to keep the beard, make sure it’s close and neatly trimmed. You can never go wrong w/ the goatee.  It’s the best of both worlds.”

I am always one for playing it safe but your hair speaks to your personality.  So, whether you decide you want to wear your hair longer or shorter, bearded or shaven, it is imperative that you keep it clean if you want to get (or keep) the job.

If you have any questions about hairstyles, I definitely recommend you follow @VinceJamael and @NoGreaseBarbershop on Instagram.  As of now, they are the only two brands I trust to take my hair as seriously as I take my professionalism and that is saying volumes.


Straight Razors and Social Justice: The Empowering Evolution of Black Barbershops

If you weren’t aware, being well-dressed is about much more than your clothes.  It encompasses everything one sees about you from your messenger bag as you walk down a crowded street to your luggage when you step off the plane to the cleanliness of your nails when you shake hands to the way your hair is styled in every setting.  This being said, over the next few weeks, I want to draw attention to a few of those things, starting with the social impact held by barbers and barbershops, particularly in the black community.  Ironically, I am headed to the barbershop this morning for my bi-monthly shape-up (a cut one week, a shape up the next).  Though it can be expensive, the fact that I am able to go into any setting with the confidence that comes with a clean hairline and beard is invaluable.  In addition to that, the level of conversation and amount of networking that go on at my barbershop (No Grease, Inc. of Charlotte North Carolina — Tim is my barber but all of the barbers in there are certified and go above and beyond) always inspires deep thought or hearty laughs.  Anyway, on to the article about the impact of the barbershop in the community.  And, next time you sit down in your barber’s chair, bring him a print out of this article.  I’m sure (s)he’ll appreciate it.



May 30th, 2014


In a country where institutionalized racism has been the norm for centuries, black barbershops remain an anomaly. Though initially blocked from serving black patrons, these businesses evolved into spaces where African Americans could freely socialize and discuss contemporary issues. While catering to certain hair types may have helped these businesses succeed, the real secret to their longevity is their continued social import. For many African Americans, getting a haircut is more than a commodity—it’s an experience that builds community and shapes political action. As both a proud symbol of African American entrepreneurship and a relic of an era when black labor exclusively benefitted whites, black barbershops provide a window into our nation’s complicated racial dynamics.

Quincy Mills, a professor of history at Vassar College, started looking closely at black barbershops when assisting Melissa Harris-Perry with research for her first book, Barbershops, Bibles, BET: Everyday Talk and Black Political Thought. Harris-Perry was investigating the ways African Americans developed their worldviews through collective conversation, specifically looking at three sectors: black churches, entertainment, and barbershops.

“As we know, the end of slavery didn’t necessarily mean the birth of freedom. It meant the birth of a new kind of bondage.”

Harris-Perry wanted to do a close study of barbershops, but was worried that as a woman, her presence would alter the nature of the space and its conversation. In her place, Mills observed the interactions of a barbershop on the South Side of Chicago four to five days a week during the summer of 2000. “As I sat there day in and day out, I couldn’t help but wonder how these spaces have been situated historically,” says Mills. “I had seen passing mentions of black barbershops in the literature on black urban history, but there weren’t any books on the topic. I wondered, ‘Were these shops the same in 1940? And what about 1840?’”

Mills spent the next decade researching the barbershop trade for his book, Cutting Along the Color Line: Black Barbers and Barber Shops in America, drawing fascinating connections between race, capitalism, and culture. We recently spoke with Mills about the roots of black barbershops and their relevance today.

Top: The Arthur Anderson Barber Shop in Mattoon, Illinois, which only served white customers, circa 1920. Above: Louis McDowell gives a young customer a high top fade in Paterson, New Jersey, in 1994. Via the Library of Congress.

Collectors Weekly: During the era of slavery, who worked as a barber?

Quincy Mills: In the South, barbers were both enslaved and free black men. There were white barbers in the North, but they were mostly immigrants, Irish and German and, later, Italian. Essentially, people associated barbering and other service work with unskilled labor, and white men positioned themselves as entitled to skilled jobs. They eschewed any notion of servility, so they didn’t want to work in service professions.

Before the Civil War, most black barbers explicitly groomed wealthy white men, like businessmen and politicians. Black customers were not allowed to get haircuts in these black-owned barbershops, mainly because white customers didn’t want black customers getting shaved next to them. That smacked too much of social equality, so barbers capitulated to the wishes of their white customers both in the North and the South.

Most black barbershops catered only to whites in the late 19th century. Via the Library of Congress.

You might wonder, “Where did black men get their hair cut?” They got haircuts on somebody’s front porch, or in the yard, or in all these other spaces that were not commercial. But here’s the limit of history’s lens: It’s also quite possible that black men came through these barbershops after hours, off the record.

“Barbering was a racialized profession, meaning it was viewed as an unskilled profession.”

I wrote about the case of a fugitive slave who recorded his travels through Kentucky, where he needed a place to hide out for the night, and explicitly looked for barbershops because he knew most barbers were black men. He found a barbershop, and as he’d guessed the barber was black, so he let him in, and immediately locked the door behind him. The fugitive’s name was John Brown, and he wrote that the barber said “You can stay for the night, but you have to be gone before morning because if anyone finds you here, it will shut up my shop.”

I take that to mean that if white folks found out he was harboring a fugitive slave, they wouldn’t patronize his business. But if the barber was willing to open his door after hours to this enslaved person on the run, it suggests that other barbers may have opened their doors after hours for all sorts of things. There aren’t enough sources to explore that in great detail, but I think it’s fascinating that they hint at it.

Collectors Weekly: How did the Civil War and abolition of slavery affect the American barbershop scene?

Mills: Before the Civil War, in the North, there was already freedom for blacks, so there was a discourse around respectable occupations for African Americans in this free society. For much of the antebellum period, folks like Frederick Douglass were writing against what they termed “color-line barbers,” who only allowed white customers in their shops. They argued that this smacked too much of slave labor, and if African Americans were going to be taken seriously, they needed occupations that were manly, respectable, and skilled. Douglass didn’t rail against black barbers in the South because he understood that they were in a slave society and couldn’t cater to African Americans. The system wouldn’t allow that to happen.

A barbershop in Richmond, Virginia, as depicted in the "Illustrated London News," on March 9, 1861.

But after the Civil War, barbers in both the North and South were targeted by black communities for refusing to shave black men. In 1875, Congress passed a civil rights act as part of Reconstruction that guaranteed African Americans access to public places of accommodation. During Reconstruction, black barbers were coming to terms with this law, which was really meant to target white store owners, but it resulted in all sorts of protests against black barbershops who refused to serve the black community.

“It was at this barbershop that he gained a glimmer of awareness of the larger black freedom struggle.”

However, many of the barbers who only served white men were still deeply engaged in black communities. Take George Myers, who became a barber in the 1880s in Cleveland, Ohio. Myers was the barber to William McKinley before McKinley was elected president, as well as a prominent businessman named Marcus Hanna. Hanna was the Karl Rove of the late 19th century, helping McKinley get elected and raise funds. Hanna was an instrumental person for the Republican Party.

What’s interesting is that Hanna selected Myers to organize black voters in Cleveland and greater Ohio. Myers became the intermediary between African Americans and the Republican Party, so much so that when McKinley was elected, Myers got a flood of letters from African Americans in the South saying, “I heard that McKinley was elected president. Congratulations on all your work. Can you put in a good word for me for this job here in Mobile, Alabama?” People knew that Myers had the ear of the president, this proximity to the seat of power. Even though Myers only served white men in his shop, African Americans felt that if he could deliver those political resources to black communities, it wasn’t an issue.

This example extends to other prominent barbers like Alonzo Herndon in Atlanta, Georgia, and John Merrick in Durham, North Carolina. All three of these men were born in the 1850s and came to prominence in the 1880s and 1890s. Merrick and Herndon used the resources from their barbershops to found life insurance companies—Atlanta Life for Herndon and North Carolina Mutual for Merrick—that still exist today. That suggests the level of wealth these men had and that they were central figures of the black political class, bar none.

Folks like Merrick and Herndon used the economic resources from their barbershops to establish insurance companies because existing companies like MetLife weren’t insuring African Americans. They used their resources in support of black communities. Reconciling the individual and collective interests in the post-Civil War period was complicated.

Barber Alonzo Herndon founded the Atlanta Life Insurance Company in 1905. This photo shows the business and its staff, circa 1922.

Alonzo Herndon and John Merrick both came out of the South after the Civil War when cities like Atlanta and Durham emerged. Many barbers saw white industrialists relocating to particular cities and recognized a burgeoning and lucrative market. The only thing that changed in the South was that you now had more African Americans speaking out against black barbers who were exclusively shaving white men. The larger argument was that slavery didn’t exist anymore, so you were no longer bound to these kinds of demarcations. But as we know, the end of slavery didn’t necessarily mean the birth of freedom. It meant the birth of a new kind of bondage.

We know there wasn’t a lot of money in the post-emancipation South because of the war’s destruction. We know that African Americans were pushed into sharecropping situations, which meant perpetual debt and no spending money. As a result, black barbers were making problematic yet rationalized decisions about their clientele.

Collectors Weekly: Did African American activists promote different careers in lieu of barbering?

Mills: Yes, it was all about the mechanical trades or carpentry, obviously skilled positions. But that term needs to be taken with a grain of salt. I don’t know if you’ve ever used a straight razor, but you know it takes a lot of skill because you can easily cut somebody’s throat with it. We also know that the social organization of labor was very racialized. So while it took a lot of skill to use a straight razor, the sheer fact that most barbers were black also meant that barbering was a racialized profession, meaning it was viewed as an unskilled profession. It was that simple.

Black activists felt that if barbers continued to shave white men, then they would continue to be seen as inferior, as servants in this dependent position. Many of the arguments about leaving barbering and other service occupations were about how others would view one’s labor. I think that that sentiment still exists with us, which is why there’s all this contemporary talk about who’s going to do lawn service work, which is also very racialized. “If we cut off immigration, who’s going to cut my grass?” It suggests there’s no clout in saying, “I cut grass for a living,” or saying, “I work at McDonald’s.” Even when there are very few jobs, many workers don’t want the kind of jobs society deems degrading.

A card for the Palace Barbershop, circa 1920s, which served the local black community in Durham, North Carolina.

Collectors Weekly: What was the effect of the “professionalization” movement?

Mills: Part of professionalizing the trade meant to re-skill the trade, an obviously racialized project to make barbering a more attractive field for whites to enter. One major marker was the founding of the Journeymen Barbers’ International Union of America, mostly organized by German barbers in the 1890s. Now, unlike native whites, German immigrants didn’t mind being barbers. They had been barbers in Europe. The Irish and Italians didn’t care about the racial stigma of barbering either. But it was clear that in order to make headway with the wealthy white clientele served by black barbers, German barbers had to make some bold moves, and organizing the union was one way they did this.

“While it might seem like they were fighting for African Americans’ rights to a trade, they were actually fighting for their own right to keep black servants.”

In the 1890s, the union pushed for licensing laws to regulate who could become a barber. This was part of a larger professionalization movement, the same moment that the American Bar Association was established to determine how one would become a lawyer and the American Medical Association was established to determine how one would become a doctor. The barber’s union lobbied various state legislatures to pass laws requiring a degree from a barber college. And as you might have guessed, blacks were not admitted to these barber colleges.

These laws meant that you couldn’t just pick up some scissors, hang out a shingle, and say I’m open for business. You had to know the anatomy of the body and something about disease—you had to be a scientist, if you will. If there was ever a moment of a nostalgia for the days of the medieval barber surgeon, this was that moment. This was when we started seeing barbering textbooks with “science” and “anatomy” in their titles.

The union attached itself to the sanitation movement as well. In order to convince legislatures that these bills were worthy of passing, they had to say, “We’re trying to protect the public. What would happen if someone wandered into a dirty barbershop and got some kind of disease? We don’t want that, do we?” Black barbers recognized this as an effort to push them out of the trade, so they were skeptical.

Left, a barber's union card from the late 1890s, and right, another from the 1940s. Unions like these pushed for licensing laws that attempted to prevent black barbers from entering the field.

Collectors Weekly: Was there any evidence of people getting diseases during a haircut?

Mills: Absolutely not, so little that state health departments were baffled at these bills, most of which did not consult them. They were like, “Wait, you want to pass a health law without the consultation of the health department?” There were also restrictions like in Richmond, Virginia, where in order to get a license, barbers had to be tested for syphilis. You get syphilis through sex, not a haircut, but there was a larger pattern of segregating blacks based on the unfounded threat of giving whites syphilis. There are some things, like head lice, that can be passed at a barbershop, but they weren’t talking intelligently about any real health concerns. It was about competition for market share.

In some states like Minnesota, they passed licensing laws fairly quickly. But in states like Ohio and Virginia it took a long time. From 1902 to 1933, the Ohio licensing bill kept getting rejected largely because of the connections of McKinley’s barber, George Myers. He had a lot of political clout, and said, “Look, if you pass this bill, I will be sure that blacks do not vote the Republican ticket.” He didn’t really have that kind of power over black votes, but he used this perception of power. That licensing bill didn’t get passed until after Myers died.

The Virginia bill kept getting rejected largely because whites opposed it. They believed black barbers who said this was a move to push them out of the trade, and whites in Virginia didn’t want to lose their black barbers. For them, having a black barber was a vestige of the Old South, like having black servants. While it might seem like they were fighting for African Americans’ rights to a trade, they were actually fighting for their own right to keep black servants. The story’s a bit complicated in that way.

Collectors Weekly: Did the professionalization movement push black barbers to cater exclusively to black customers?

Mills: In terms of black barbershops opening in black communities, by and large, it wasn’t so much as a result of the union efforts. By the 1890s, you have a new generation of African Americans who had been born and came of age after the Civil War. They were not as connected to white communities as their predecessors were. They didn’t enter barbering grooming white men. Instead, they explicitly decided to open barbershops in black communities. This is, obviously, the same time that Jim Crow laws were on the rise, so that was happening in parallel.

It was a moment when African Americans turned inward to consider the organization of black communities that were becoming increasingly segregated and surveyed, and facing more racial violence. They turned inward to think about how to respond to Jim Crow, but also to engage in the self-reflective work that produced black cultural movements.

The Golden West Hotel in Portland, Oregon, opened in 1906 to serve the city's booming black population. Waldo Bogle's barbershop was one of the hotel's various businesses.

Collectors Weekly: In your book, you call barbershops “private spaces in the public sphere.” Can you explain that concept?

Mills: Barbershops are commercial spaces, so anyone can technically go inside them—it’s not like somebody’s home where you have to get permission to enter. But they’re private in that there’s an expectation that what happens in there, stays there. Black barbershops are private because whites wouldn’t be around, so their patrons wouldn’t be surveilled. It wasn’t like a public park or a street corner.

In many barbershops, for example, the nature of the conversation changes when women enter. Sometimes it changes in a paternalistic way like, “There’s a lady in here, and we have to be respectful, so don’t curse.” There’s a certain type of respect, which is really about the production of masculinity, and how men think they should perform their own masculinity around other men.

The other side of the public-private designation is that while barbershops are public in terms of collective conversation, this takes place within a private business. We tend to forget that the market economy is still central to the barbershop’s existence. The barber has to turn some kind of profit. The needs of a private business are balanced with the needs of this collective dialogue.

Barbers Pete Boyd and Johnny Gator cut hair in Gator's barbershop circa 1950, while female relatives socialize in the background. Photo by Charles "Teenie" Harris, via the Carnegie Museum of Art.

Collectors Weekly: Did these black commercial spaces become sites for political action and activism?

Mills: Yes, definitely. With the rise of Jim Crow, public spaces were becoming less accessible to African Americans, so it helped that places like black churches, black barbershops, and, later on, black beauty shops and other businesses provided spaces where African Americans could safely gather, talk, and organize.

This 1960s flyer from the University of Illinois calls for students to urge barbers to serve all patrons or else boycott them.

Now, I wouldn’t put black barbershops on the same level as the church. It’s very well-documented that the black church was central to Civil Rights organizing, and that’s because they were much bigger spaces. You can fit hundreds of people in a church, while you might only get five or six people meeting in a barbershop.

But there are a number of cases where activists retreated to a barbershop to plan a particular campaign, and there are tons of examples of African Americans coming to consciousness in barbershops. Black newspapers were available in barbershops and many barbers were quite politically active, so they would provide their own literature and reading materials, whether about the Communist Party or registering to vote.

Stokely Carmichael, who would go on to be chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, was first exposed to activism at his regular barbershop. When his family moved to the Bronx, the local barbers were Irish and couldn’t cut his hair, so Carmichael wound up going to Harlem every week to get his hair cut. He explained in his autobiography how it was in this Harlem barbershop that he learned about the Brown v. Board of Education decision and black activism. It was at this barbershop that he gained a glimmer of awareness of the larger black freedom struggle.

Collectors Weekly: Did segregation laws spur the growth of black barbershops?

Mills: Actually, I think that even if Jim Crow had not come to be, these shops would still have functioned the same way because of the needs of hair type and black cultural life. Hair doesn’t have a race, meaning there’s no such thing as black hair or white hair, but there are different hair types. You can cut straight hair with scissors, but if someone has curly or coarse hair, you can’t just use scissors because the hair’s going to curl up and you won’t get an even cut. Hair type matters because you have to know how to cut my hair for me to actually go to your shop.

There’s also a level of trust in the barbershop as a whole because of this larger camaraderie happening in that space. If someone thinks of a haircut as a commodity, then it doesn’t matter who cuts their hair—they can go to a Supercuts in New York, and then go to a different Supercuts in D.C. next week. However, I think many African Americans don’t view haircuts as commodities but as a more personal service. That’s why I argue that barbershops serve a larger function and were not just a response to Jim Crow. They were central to the production of black identity.

During the era of desegregation, and even now, black barbershops, beauty shops, and the churches are still black spaces. Obviously, African Americans attend all sorts of churches and beauty shops, but those catering to the black community are still largely separate. And that is essentially because the production of black culture happens in these spaces.

A crowd gathers outside a store and barbershop in Union Point, Georgia, circa 1941. Photo by Jack Delano, via the Library of Congress.

Collectors Weekly: How is barbering central to black communities today?

Mills: I think it’s an important trade for many black communities largely because there are still few barriers to entry. It’s not like opening a restaurant, where you need a substantial amount of capital. If you want to be a barber, you go to barber college, get your license, and you’re set. It’s still an open avenue for many folks, and people will always need haircuts. Styles may change and some people will let their hair grow out, but I think barbers will always be in demand.

However, the nature of barbershops is changing, and I think technology is at work here. I’ve found that when folks are waiting around in barbershops, they’re much more likely to be on their cell phones than engaging with other people. That’s a larger societal issue, of course. We are tethered to our phones in ways that are scary. The generation of men in their 50s, 60s, and older, still goes to barbershops to hang out and talk, and they’re not attached to their phones the way my generation might be.

I suspect that in a place like Detroit, for example, a city that is facing massive bankruptcy, dislocation, etc., places like barbershops are actually quite critical at this moment. They provide this connective tissue amid all the reports of violence, disinvestment, and decline. I suspect that barbershops are providing a space where folks can rail against that narrative and engage with each other, where they can keep community ties together.

Louis Armstrong gets a haircut in his local barbershop in Queens, New York, circa 1965. Via "LIFE" Magazine.

Collectors Weekly: Why is there still such a strong racial divide in American barbershops?

Mills: There’s some merit to the argument that you need open spaces where folks from various nationalities or races can get together and talk about weighty matters. We need to come together to discuss this stuff. But I think barbershops are critical because they are spaces of “willing congregation,” as I like to call them, rather than rigidly segregated spaces. They’re important today because we know that black communities are still very marginalized.

During the recession, when the national unemployment rate was upwards of 8 or 9 percent, the black unemployment rate was double that, around 17 or 18 percent. Any student would look at those numbers and say, “Something’s wrong with this. Why is this double?” But the Obama administration felt constrained to talk about the issue from that perspective. Frankly, it doesn’t matter who the 18 percent was: They could’ve been white, Latino, Asian, anyone. That number shows huge inequality and disparity. We can also talk about the incarceration rate; there’s clearly a disparity in who’s incarcerated. But it takes a lot just to point out those disparities to the larger public, much less to talk about the reasons why.

That’s not to say at all black folks think the same thing—in fact, you get lots of debates and people disagreeing in barbershops. But you don’t have to do the heavy work of convincing people of the obvious, of saying that this topic matters. That’s why spaces like black barbershops are important, because you can cut through that jazz and get to the heart of what we should do about these issues.

Louis McDowell demonstrates how to sharpen a straight razor at his shop in Paterson, New Jersey, in 1994. Via the Library of Congress.

Source: Collector’s Weekly